ARCH 221 Report: The Hellenistic Realm

erechtheum-porch-caryatidsDuring the Hellenistic period, architecture emphasized on decoration rather than function. In this term, the Greek continued to build temples , but also began to build a lot of other types of large public buildings. The architecture is similar to Hellenistic sculpture, focused on theatrically, drama and the experience of the viewer.

The Doric order was abandoned because it was considered too formal. On the contrary, the architectural style of the Ionic order, being more decorative and elegant, was preferred to suit the aesthetics of the Hellenistic period. They was put their wealth on display for all to see; building elaborate palaces and commissioning art sculptures and extravagant jewelry. Public spaces and temples were created with the people in mind, and so were built on a new monumental scale. They were constructed on larger scale in more ambitious configuration and complexity.

On the other hand, classical temple was self-contained and active. They had a relation with nature and built which gave it scale. One of the famous temples in this term was temple of Apollo. Unlike a typical Ionic and Doric temple, the plan of the Temple of Apollo consists of a temple within a temple. Normally, a temple’s foundation will lie on a more or less consistent horizontal plane. As one approaches this temple, the stairs in the center of the east side are marked off as the entrance.

When we look at the determinants of city form, the structure of grid maintained its importance in this term. Besides that, plan of the hilly site was given importance and based on the vertical, three dimensional alliance of major building groups. The cities of that period had the main gate, acting this as the threshold between the nature and  the urban landscape. The monumental public buildings contributing both the rural population as well as those living within the city’s walls, constituted the urban landscape.


ARCH 201 / Defining Enclosure_Walls

  1. Cloaked in Bricks/ Admun Design & Construction Studio, Iran, 2015.
  2. Kengo KUma, SunnyHills at Miami-Aoyama, Japan, 2013.
  3. Trail Restroom/ Miro Rivera Architects, Austin.

We analysed spatial, physical, structural, material qualities of different enclosure achieved by different  walls and their spatial effects in the projects given us. We defined space like layering, seperating, dividing, enclosing, containing…etc. Then, I documented these analyses through drawing & sketches in my ADS and after that, i produced three detail models listed and showed above in 1/5 scale that show their qualities.

TSMD Architecture Students Projects Exhibition: Basamaklar 2015

TSMD architecture center organized an exhibition which consist of architecture students projects. The exhibiton includes department of architecture students projects of 8 universities. It does host TED university, Başkent university, MEDU, Bilkent university, Çankaya university, Atılım university, Gazi university and TOBB university. The exhibition provide interaction between universities. I excited attention some projects in there. I saw different projects and designing model. Also my final model was exhibited in there so i’m so pleased to be one of the good projects.


ARCH 221 Report: Polis and Akropolis

After the structure of temples in the ancient Greece, the another significant orders were urban planning. The Greek people formed the cities called polis and acropolis that have an important in terms of architecture. Acropolis refers to the ‘upper town’ of any Greek city. The majority of the Greek cities were built on hills and the acropolis. It was the centre of religious and political life. In these days, there were some rules to compose the settlement of the city. One of them was the large open space for the people in the public center.  When analyzed as a whole, there is a orthogonal planning in cities of Greek. This is also called ‘grid plan’. The grid provided a straightforward way to divide the land shape the structure of the city. It was purposed that the placement of sites dedicated to public life and sacred space, was to be used for housing.  Hippodamus first applied to his home city the grid plan which he had developed on inspiration from geometrically designed settlement, and that later many cities were laid out according to this plan. Mietus, which is a fine example of the grid plan, comprises houses on blocks created by streets and side streets crossing at right angles, with public buildings in the city centre. The Hippodamian who applied the grid system divided into three categories to the city. These are sacred, private and public.

Stoa is a Greek architectural term that describes a covered walkway or colonnade that was usually designed for public use. It was described as ‘marketplace’ in Greek agora. The agoras of the Miletus are defined by stoas in terms of some aspects. Stoas became elements of a design, making open space formal and monumental without enclosing it.

ARCH 201/ Vertical Circulation

  1. Steven Holl Architects, Nanjing Sifang Art Museum, China, 2011
  2. Li Xiaodong, Liyuan Library, Beijing, China, 2011.
  3. Ifat Finkelman + Deborah Warschawski , The Youth Wing for Art Education Entrance Courtyard, Israel, 2014.

We analysed different vertical circulation to achieve variation in movement, through diagrams, plans and axonometric sketches  in the given projects. We tried to understand the physical, structural and material qualities of these elements and their effects on the scalar relations and spatial experiences. I picked three examples and made the models of these examples in the scale of  1/5 and 1/10 with proper details. We understood the stairs and ramp qualities in the vertical circulation also these concepts present different experiences in a space.

ARCH 221 Report: Bronze Age Cities: The Aegean and Asia Minor / The Greek Temple and “Barbarian” Alternatives

The bronze age is a term that was managed by royal class.In general, in the settlement in coast of the Aegean, palaces and castles were built by princes.  In that term ,there was not any wall to defense surrounding of the centre so, palaces could extend easily. The Asia in the bronze age was the first homeland of European civilization such as settlement of Çatalhöyük. I mentioned about it in previous reports. In this term, Hittite state had a great imperial power and a look at Hattusas gives us information about the Hittite environment. Hattusas was on a spur of rocky hills. After some time, Hattusas became capital of the Hittite and defense and intimidation had an important. There were not defense manmade. They made walls to increase level of security. The walls skillfully followed the land contour. They were built on a huge embankment of earth The structure , made of mud- brick reinforced with timber beams. Also they built a long tunnel to defense themselves at the bottom of the embankment, below the apron wall also it had a single gate.

The another significant and impressive remains are temples in Hittite. Four of them that become important  had not standard and typical orientation compare with other temple structures. Style of the temples in Hittite, they remind of the Mesopotamia  and Egypt, but they differ from its contemporaries at Thebes and Ur in some aspects such as style of court. The another important lands in Asia history are Beycesultan and Troy. Beycesultan which is one of having different interest for architectural study had a modern settlement near the source of the Meander river. These two settlement had main characteristic features. They had not religious building of public scale. Most of the structure was residential and administrative. When looked at the style of the palace in that civilization, Megaron, in ancient Greece and the Middle East, architectural form consisting of an open porch, a vestibule, and a large hall with a central hearth and a throne. It also built as part of houses and it is the central feature of all Mycenaean palaces. The Megaron dominated the palace complex in size and determined its axis.

End of the Bronze age, began the immigration in Aegean, permanent settlement changed. political, social and cultural layers occurred a new political order. Effects of the events, bring about architectural changes. Architecture of Greek was completely for society. In city plans, old systems moved on with same traditions.  From these early times, one specific building type predominated is the temples. They were built with local references and traditions. Initially, the temple took the form of a single room. Outside was the altar, which was used for animal sacrifices. The columns appeared in the interiors of these buildings.  the peristyle was unique to Greek architecture and it was to remain one of the most characteristic features. In Greek, ratios and proportions were properly applied to both ground plans and elevations perfectly. It had perfect balance of parts.

Now, I want to mention about three important orders in Greek architecture. These are Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Doric columns stood directly on the ground of a temple without base. The most popular example for the Doric design columns is the Parthenon in mainland Greece.  The Parthenon had Doric order is the largest temple in classical Athens. Its sculptural enrichment  is more familiar with Ionic order. On the other hand, Doric order has three main characteristic features: strength, masculinity, solidity. The Ionic order is the contemporary of the Doric. Also it has main characteristic features: beauty, femininity and slenderness. Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek. It differed from the Doric and Ionic in terms of structural system. It was purely decorative.

ARCH 201/ In Situ: Eymir Peninsula


In my photomontage, the green areas represent the space of trees, and brown colour represent the reeds.The route been red colour for 15 people they experience high level of the land and blue colour for the 5 people and they experience the south facade near the lake and finally yellow colour represent sinle person route. This route just is suitable for one person because surface of the land in north has challanging conditions in term of slope and weather.

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We went to Eymir lake for the project. During the trip, we were expected to landscape design for this land and we analysed the physical qualities of the land and we documented sketches and drawing. Natural factors like position of the sun, trees, direction of the wind…etc. have an importance and also scale has also significant effect to design. Then, We were expected to find three routes for the 1/5/15 people.


ARCH 221 Report: Architecture of the Ancient Egypt


It was mentioned about the beginning of architecture in Neolithic age in previous reports. Now, I will talk about Egypt architecture . In ancient Egypt, Neolithic  village life developed and continued instead into two main principles. This term was based on  Lower Egypt and upper Egypt. Both of them settled different location and they had a separate capital. When it is investigated in terms of architecture of the Egypt structure, it can be say that vernacular architecture surfaced was the main characteristic feature prominently.  Moreover, there is a balance between tradition and innovation. character of the structures were defined according to the style of time. In structures of the Egyptian, tectonic and organic  concepts were continuous features. They emphasized these concepts especially in vertical elements. They usually used block stone in the structures to provide permanence.

The other significant architectural structures were tombs and temples which represent the Egypt’s religion throughout Egypt history. Architecture in Egypt began with structure of the tombs of Kings. Egyptian believe life after death so, they designed the tombs as a house and people were buried with their valuable possessions. At Sakkara, the royal tombs were more complicated.  This is the most famous pyramid in Egypt. The another important Pyramid is Zoser’s pyramid complex . the tomb was elaborated  too much. Also it is not same with other Egyptian principles like axis sequence. Its architecture developed other ideas the sol ruler of upper and lower Egypt. In this pyramid, It was used double tombs, court,… and all this was done in stone. Brick, timber, and plant forms of Egyptian architecture were based on this tomb. The Zoser’s pyramid is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in a huge courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decorations.

The tombs in Egypt is visually close to the Mesopotamia Ziggurat, but there is  an obvious differences between them. At Sakkara, there were no manageable stairs for human. There is not any sort to be reached (architectural climax).It was a structure that sublimated the holy person of the king. The another important pyramid is Giza.  The Giza which has classical beauty and have a significant slope was consisted of three pyramids.  Mykerinos, Cheaps and Sneferu. Cheaps was the biggest one and it is one of the seven wonders of the world because of the fact that it is the biggest structure being man-made.

The another famous temple structure is Deir el-Bahri. It is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile. The first monument built at the site was the mortuary temple of Eleventh dynasty. It is consists of three elements. These are a large forecourt, terrace and hypostyle hall. The temple was a square building faced externally with colonnades, except on the cliff side. In this temple, terrace that is surrounded  traditional forms and columns and centre were combined. Also there is a courtyard with columns like other tombs.

In the ancient Egypt, the other significant architectural temples are Karnak and Luxor. The temple of Karnak was  known as most select of places by the ancient Egyptian. It is a city of temples built over 2000 years. It is the largest religious building ever made. The hypostyle hall has 134 columns and it still protects the feature that being the largest room of any religious building in the world. The this term structures procession began at Karnak and ended at Luxor. The two temple compounds on the east bank, Karnak to the north an which was known as Amon’s “southern Harem”. If, after thousand of years, Egyptian temples protect the own secrets. it cannot still identity how it was built and who is built, but it has essential elements for the architecture in Today’s World.