ARCH 221 Report: Architecture of the Ancient Egypt


It was mentioned about the beginning of architecture in Neolithic age in previous reports. Now, I will talk about Egypt architecture . In ancient Egypt, Neolithic  village life developed and continued instead into two main principles. This term was based on  Lower Egypt and upper Egypt. Both of them settled different location and they had a separate capital. When it is investigated in terms of architecture of the Egypt structure, it can be say that vernacular architecture surfaced was the main characteristic feature prominently.  Moreover, there is a balance between tradition and innovation. character of the structures were defined according to the style of time. In structures of the Egyptian, tectonic and organic  concepts were continuous features. They emphasized these concepts especially in vertical elements. They usually used block stone in the structures to provide permanence.

The other significant architectural structures were tombs and temples which represent the Egypt’s religion throughout Egypt history. Architecture in Egypt began with structure of the tombs of Kings. Egyptian believe life after death so, they designed the tombs as a house and people were buried with their valuable possessions. At Sakkara, the royal tombs were more complicated.  This is the most famous pyramid in Egypt. The another important Pyramid is Zoser’s pyramid complex . the tomb was elaborated  too much. Also it is not same with other Egyptian principles like axis sequence. Its architecture developed other ideas the sol ruler of upper and lower Egypt. In this pyramid, It was used double tombs, court,… and all this was done in stone. Brick, timber, and plant forms of Egyptian architecture were based on this tomb. The Zoser’s pyramid is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in a huge courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decorations.

The tombs in Egypt is visually close to the Mesopotamia Ziggurat, but there is  an obvious differences between them. At Sakkara, there were no manageable stairs for human. There is not any sort to be reached (architectural climax).It was a structure that sublimated the holy person of the king. The another important pyramid is Giza.  The Giza which has classical beauty and have a significant slope was consisted of three pyramids.  Mykerinos, Cheaps and Sneferu. Cheaps was the biggest one and it is one of the seven wonders of the world because of the fact that it is the biggest structure being man-made.

The another famous temple structure is Deir el-Bahri. It is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile. The first monument built at the site was the mortuary temple of Eleventh dynasty. It is consists of three elements. These are a large forecourt, terrace and hypostyle hall. The temple was a square building faced externally with colonnades, except on the cliff side. In this temple, terrace that is surrounded  traditional forms and columns and centre were combined. Also there is a courtyard with columns like other tombs.

In the ancient Egypt, the other significant architectural temples are Karnak and Luxor. The temple of Karnak was  known as most select of places by the ancient Egyptian. It is a city of temples built over 2000 years. It is the largest religious building ever made. The hypostyle hall has 134 columns and it still protects the feature that being the largest room of any religious building in the world. The this term structures procession began at Karnak and ended at Luxor. The two temple compounds on the east bank, Karnak to the north an which was known as Amon’s “southern Harem”. If, after thousand of years, Egyptian temples protect the own secrets. it cannot still identity how it was built and who is built, but it has essential elements for the architecture in Today’s World.

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