ARCH 221 Report: Bronze Age Cities: The Aegean and Asia Minor / The Greek Temple and “Barbarian” Alternatives

The bronze age is a term that was managed by royal class.In general, in the settlement in coast of the Aegean, palaces and castles were built by princes.  In that term ,there was not any wall to defense surrounding of the centre so, palaces could extend easily. The Asia in the bronze age was the first homeland of European civilization such as settlement of Çatalhöyük. I mentioned about it in previous reports. In this term, Hittite state had a great imperial power and a look at Hattusas gives us information about the Hittite environment. Hattusas was on a spur of rocky hills. After some time, Hattusas became capital of the Hittite and defense and intimidation had an important. There were not defense manmade. They made walls to increase level of security. The walls skillfully followed the land contour. They were built on a huge embankment of earth The structure , made of mud- brick reinforced with timber beams. Also they built a long tunnel to defense themselves at the bottom of the embankment, below the apron wall also it had a single gate.

The another significant and impressive remains are temples in Hittite. Four of them that become important  had not standard and typical orientation compare with other temple structures. Style of the temples in Hittite, they remind of the Mesopotamia  and Egypt, but they differ from its contemporaries at Thebes and Ur in some aspects such as style of court. The another important lands in Asia history are Beycesultan and Troy. Beycesultan which is one of having different interest for architectural study had a modern settlement near the source of the Meander river. These two settlement had main characteristic features. They had not religious building of public scale. Most of the structure was residential and administrative. When looked at the style of the palace in that civilization, Megaron, in ancient Greece and the Middle East, architectural form consisting of an open porch, a vestibule, and a large hall with a central hearth and a throne. It also built as part of houses and it is the central feature of all Mycenaean palaces. The Megaron dominated the palace complex in size and determined its axis.

End of the Bronze age, began the immigration in Aegean, permanent settlement changed. political, social and cultural layers occurred a new political order. Effects of the events, bring about architectural changes. Architecture of Greek was completely for society. In city plans, old systems moved on with same traditions.  From these early times, one specific building type predominated is the temples. They were built with local references and traditions. Initially, the temple took the form of a single room. Outside was the altar, which was used for animal sacrifices. The columns appeared in the interiors of these buildings.  the peristyle was unique to Greek architecture and it was to remain one of the most characteristic features. In Greek, ratios and proportions were properly applied to both ground plans and elevations perfectly. It had perfect balance of parts.

Now, I want to mention about three important orders in Greek architecture. These are Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Doric columns stood directly on the ground of a temple without base. The most popular example for the Doric design columns is the Parthenon in mainland Greece.  The Parthenon had Doric order is the largest temple in classical Athens. Its sculptural enrichment  is more familiar with Ionic order. On the other hand, Doric order has three main characteristic features: strength, masculinity, solidity. The Ionic order is the contemporary of the Doric. Also it has main characteristic features: beauty, femininity and slenderness. Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek. It differed from the Doric and Ionic in terms of structural system. It was purely decorative.