This term project topic is a museum. First of all, I analyze the museum historically. The word of museum origins comes from ancient Greek called ‘mouseion it meant “living space of the Muses”. Muse is accepted as a source of inspiration in Greek mythology. Open and enclosed spaces dedicated to these 9 muses were called museums in Ancient Greece. Mouseion designated a philosophical institution or a place of thinking. Museum is a facility for the preservation and exhibiting of collection that an activity that is a universal phenomenon as old as mankind itself. As a particular kind of collection, the museum is a compilation of natural objects, art science and cultural objects. Actually, the main purpose of museum is that convey information of cultural, scientific and natural values of people to further generation.
The Museum of Alexandria, established in 4th century B.C, is accepted the first museum that presented collection, exhibition, preservation and classification missions for museums in the historical development. The museum contains collection of book, places researching and examining and some rooms for discussion and conservation. With this way, the museum transform to a significant science center.
In today’s context, the museums firstly are established in renaissance term. The importance of museums as centers of knowledge, science and art has increased steadily over the last century; from an elite understanding to a pluralistic understanding, has come to a position appealing to every segment of society. The museum’s socialization process, dating from the 18th century to the present day, has led research, conservation and communication into three key areas of work that support each other. For this reason, it is taken into consideration that the museum design is to protect the objects, to exhibit them and to transfer the information about the objects to the audience in an understandable way. The temples, churches, palaces and villas house to the first museums. From the 1920s, the architectural understanding formed by the Bauhaus School, which consisted of neutral areas, was influenced by the slogan “Form Follows Function” and the space design in which the function was based.
It should not be forgotten that in the simplification, modernization and transparency of the museums, it was the effects of large glass-faced historic structures such as Crystal Palace which Joseph Paxton made for the Industrial Exhibition in London in 1850-1851. In order to catch society attention, the image of the frightening temple is replaced by a transparent, intriguing museum design that integrates the outside and the inside such as Center George Pompidou.
The museums placed in large buildings bring about their faithfulness and authority. Today, this authority has changed its methods and strategies for this purpose by taking this sacredness back into the plan, primarily aiming at the needs of the audience and designing and exhibiting them as an essential thing of their institutions. Freedom of movement in environmental psychology, museum entries and intermediate spaces can be said to be similar to shopping malls where many American museums are transparent and entertaining, relaxing and guiding with plants, and a little more popular among the public. It may be thought that this resemblance was used especially at museum entrances in order to make the vacations of society more attractive in the shopping centers and to make attractive the museums which are seen by many as forbidden zones. The National Gallery (1937) that has a classical style in Washington is an answer to this description.
In the vicinity of the entrance are mostly counseling, toilets, cafes, shops. Like the Louvre in Paris, the world’s most classical enthusiasts take these designs as priorities and replace them with different or the same ideas. In design of the museum, the important things are the design of the building and comfort of the visiter. In the classical museum architecture, the ongoing corridors were divided by panos and later abbreviated or destroyed, making it easier to visit the museum; deaf walls were opened at reasonable intervals to connect the museum to the outside.
When examining the museum in Turkey, the first example of museum is based on the Mecma-I Asar-I Atika (ancient artwork collection), at the same time it brings about the foundation of İstanbul Archeology Museum at the end of the 19th century. Currently, the Museum is undergoing a process of transformation into a new contemporary institution. The first works are historical pieces collected from the Church of St. Irene. The museum includes the re-distributing more than 2000 thousand objects along 36 galleries.
I read an article about relations of experience and spaces in museum building. I want to share some basic information about importance of visitors and contribution to their experience to designing of museum.
Museum Experience and Factors Affecting Experience
In today’s concept of museum is shaped on the experience and in creation of these experience environments, it evaluates visitors and their features. In this direction, the main issue is to attract the greatest number of people. According to time, space and date, the museums express that they exhibit many attitudes towards visiting. According to the examining of Doering, this experience is grouped in three main model. Visitor as a foreign, visitor as a guest and visitor as a customer. These factors affect the degisn of museum spaces in terms of their experience. In the first model, the main focus point is the collection of museum.
In second model, the main point is that museum wants to make ‘good things’ for visiters. In that sense, the good thing describe as offering educational activities and spaces for people. When the visiters is accepted as a customer, the museum has responsibility against to people to satisfy people’s needs and expectations. This perspective shows that the museum acts as a service sector as well.
To experience, individuals come to museum with the experience with different preliminary information, personal stories, different perspectives and anticipations. In addition, the interests of people are diverse, and the museums are looking for different kinds of experiences for different interests. The museums must include distinct types of spaces designed to increase the possibilities for these experiences that including social, cognitive, introspective, and object experience. These places should encourage the experience of the object directly, present learning experience, encouraging imagination, developing interaction between people.
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