CTIZENSHIP AND COSMOPOLITANISM
Istanbul was a cosmopolitan city with distinct neighborhood reflecting the empire’s cultural diversity and the capital’s role as a political and economic hub within the region. Especially, İstiklal Street, Pera and Galata district offer a rich opportunity for cosmopolitan life. Galata became a significant and popular business district after the second half of the nineteenth century. The urban modernization and the developments in transportation, such as the construction of the Tunel (subway tunnel) and the tramways, helped fast and easy access to surrounding districts and generated a residential outward growth.
When the historic peninsula, the ‘old city’, reflect the historical texture of th city and it is symbolized obsolescence, stagnation, The Galata and Pera district called as ‘modern’ and ‘ westernized’.
Galata and Pera were not the only non-Muslim residential neighborhoods in Istanbul. However, it was only in these districts that the 12 diversity of social differences merged in with the physical landscape and created a significantly different lived experience for those who traveled through the district day and night. Architectural and social spaces in Galata and Pera are linked inextricably in the re/production of everyday lived experiences.
TRADE AND CAPITALISM
By the end of the nineteenth century, the dichotomy between the urban fabric of Galata and the historic peninsula on the other side of the Golden Horn had grown to a striking extent. The modernization and urban developments in Galata was intimately related to the commercial relations and the expansion of nineteenth century international capitalism. The market, banks, insurance companies, stock exchange and innumerable small commercial ventures were all set in Galata and Pera.
When it is thinking about the all themes above mentined, trade and capitalism is unavoidable for 19th century museum. Capitalism is thought as an economic system. The 19th century industrial revolution offered a new production bazaar with new technological machines and the means of trade changed. I made a case study ‘ Museum of Capitalism ‘. The Museum of Capitalism is an institution dedicated to educating this generation and future generations about the history, philosophy, and legacy of capitalism, through exhibitions, research, publication, collecting and preserving material evidence, art, and artifacts of capitalism, and a variety of public programming. The Museum strives to broaden public understanding of capitalism through multifaceted programs.
PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION
The look of IStanbul was changed further during the Ottoman era by construction activities, and the cosmopolitan structure of the city was expanded in time too. However, the look of Istanbul was changed mostly due to big or small fires, and the city was reconstructed many timesin the Ottoman era. However, the greatest change came with the modern industrialization during the 19th century. The industrialization process especially affected mansions, gardens, and old palaces; they were demoslished in favır of military buildings, new factories, nd terminals Barracks and factories became the symbol Ottoman industrialization.
In this week, lecture is given by Asst. Prof. Dr. Bilge İmamoğlu on the history of the profession in Turkey
In the lecture, we started with the definition of profession, professional, and professionalism. We mentioned the issues that is related emerging process of ‘profession’. Profession means ‘meslek’ in Turkish and it is a combination of skills and abilities that one person has in the nature of being able to benefit other people in order to produce a job. However, in society, it is confused that the meanings of profession and occupation. Occupation (iş) is that a person’s principal job in life to earn money.
Later on, it is talked about the process of being professional. The process starts with the production and circulation of the knowledge specific to occupation within centralized educational institutions. He mentioned about the early educational institutions of the Ottoman Empire such as “Mühendishane-i Bahri-i Hümayün”, “Mekteb-i Mülkiye”or “Darül Fünun”. Then, he talked about the institutions coming with the republic such as “Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi”, then “Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi”. Through end of the lecture, it is mentioned the movements to professionalism in the field of architecture such as the “Arkitekt” magazine by Zeki Sayar.