19th Century Museum in Istanbul
This article is written for the course COM360 Alternative Media. I have to say that this course provided different thinking approaches to me about the alternative media. Especially, it developed my critical and comparing thinking skills in topics both of the main stream media and alternative media. During the lectures, I learned that the alternative media offers different organization structure and their practice with their discourse. However, after the all of the subjects discussed in the course, one of them has taken my interest.
The gender discrimination in advertisement especially against women is paid attention to me among the topics. My attention has started during the lecture that mention about gender discrimination and then, as a group we prepare a presentation, and during the process, I analyzed and searched on gender discrimination in advertisement and its effects in the media. At the end, I noticed that we encourage with this matter in our daily life obviously, but mostly we do not care. The usage of woman figure is a fact that encountered in frequently in both world and our country. The placed stereotype of woman is reflected to television programs, newspaper, advertisements, films etc… In media, the woman shows as a consumer as well as an object used in consumption. In my article, I examined the stereotypical usage of woman image in advertisements under two main concepts. These are woman as sexual object, women’s accepted role (mother& wife).
The first issue is that woman is used as a sexual objects in advertisement. In today, the easy way to attract people’s attention (especially men) in a product’s advertisement is the use of woman. The attractiveness of women can make them even interesting product. Therefore, use of women in the media increases more in time. In many times, the newspaper includes photographs that put forward the women body under the title of art or fashion news. In sometimes, the irrelevant news can be offered by women. In this context, it is possible to say that the media increases daily rating account over the women body. In TV series, films, advertisements, magazine programs, woman is mostly featured with sexuality. With this way, women became exploitative of media. On the other hand, it is not noticed that the advertisement, programs etc. are engraved in people’s subconscious ideal woman sizes and a woman become well-groomed, she always looks beauty and thin. I think that advertisements which target group of men, women are seen as the object of the naked and exhibiting their bodies. With this way, advertisement ownerships aim to increase the sales of products. For example, in a shoes advertisement that used attractive woman, it is created perception that if you buy this shoes, you can have a passionate geisha like that.
Secondly, the other important topic is women’s accepted role in society. How it is reflected to this perception to the people? When examines in advertisements, they apply different methods to pay attention to people. Longstanding advertisements are emphasized the ideal woman describes as ‘good wife’ as well as a ‘good mother’. Actually, the advertisement can be change depending on changing life style, values, cultures, etc…When looking at the advertisement of 60s’, most of the ads were focused to show the weakness of woman who accept man’s dominance, and the woman reflected meticulous at the level of obsessiveness and the aim is that the affected to her husband and make household chores during day. In cleaning materials or diaper ads, it is seen that the main figure is ‘magnificent motherhood’ being happy when she cleans the house or find appropriate diaper her baby. Motherhood always is reflected as first rule of the woman by media.
Against all of them, in recent years, with women who show in more business life and becoming more social, the perception of woman as a mother and wife start to change though not so much. In advertisements in which the working woman is also include in media. I last seen advertisement of ‘Selpak’ in these days. It helped to believe that some people start to be aware of the woman. It became a different advertisement. This good advertisement motto is ‘Did not it comes time for you to delete the prejudices? Selpak is about the story of successful women despite of the prejudices with this advertisement. They started a communication campaign that query the bias, and they aimed to create awareness in society. I think that this ads contributes to break down the perception of ‘ideal woman’. In addition, a web page that I searched named ‘Feminist-iz’ that a group of women who is prevented and ignored by main stream media create their own alternative media to create awareness against mainstream media. They share their experiences, free ideas and knowledge with the peoples via publishing fanzin, news, documentaries and videos.
To sum up, with this alternative media course I acquired new knowledge and learned to look at a topic in different aspects. Especially, in process of this topic, I saw many differences between reflected to the people in alternative media and main stream media. With this article, I learned that when advertisement that source of income of media gives a message to targeting group of people, it reflects values and gender roles of this society. There is no doubt that, time is passing and some stereotypes are hard to change in a short term. In parallel with, the advertisement that the main purpose is paid attention by consumers still use the woman as a sexual object to acquire profit. On the other hand, other method to sell products is that the woman express as cultural and traditional model of society. Ideal woman model shown in media as a good mother or wife used in especially household chores or cleaning product advertisements has some purpose in this sector at the end. In all of this, I have to say that this ideas is trying to change and it is tried to create awareness in society in today’s world as in ‘selpak’ advertisement that I have mentioned above. Hence, the change in gender roles is directly related with the changing in advertising. Because the advertisements are settled in culture and community moves with judgments. So the conversion in the ads, but the entire aggregation it can happen together with the spreading transformation.
The lego house is designed by Bjarke Ingels in Denmark. Lego bring the toy scale of the classic lego brick to architectural scale with Lego House forming vast exhibition spaces and public squares that embody the culture and values at the heart of all LEGO experiences.
In the lego house, everything from experience zones and outdoor spaces to restaurant concepts are based on play and creativity. Due to its central location in the heart of Billund, the 23 m tall LEGO House is conceived as an urban space as much as an experience center. 21 overlapping blocks are placed like individual buildings, framing a 2,000 m2 LEGO square that is illuminated through the cracks and gaps between the volumes. The plaza appears like an urban cave without any visible columns and is publicly accessible, allowing visitors and citizens of Billund to shortcut through the building.
The LEGO square is energized by an urban character, welcoming locals and visitors to the café, restaurant, LEGO store and conference facilities. Above the square, a cluster of galleries overlap to create a continuous sequence of exhibitions. Each gallery is color-coded in LEGO’s primary colors so wayfinding through the exhibitions becomes a journey through the color spectrum.
There are many kind of exhibition spaces that offers flexible height and weight. The these spaces are used different colors to separate exhition spaces from each other. The first and second floors include four play zones arranged by color and programmed with activities that represent a certain aspect of a child’s learning: red is creative, blue is cognitive, green is social, and yellow is emotional. Guests of all ages can have an immersive and interactive experience, express their imagination, and not least be challenged by meeting other builders from all over the world. The top of the building is crowned by the Masterpiece Gallery, a collection of LEGO fans’ beloved creations that pay tribute to the LEGO community.
The Masterpiece Gallery is made of the iconic 2×4 LEGO brick and showcases art beneath eight circular skylights that resemble the studs of the brick. Like the golden ratio, the proportions of the brick are nested in the geometries of everything man-made in the building, from the glazed ceramic tiles in the steps and walls to the overall 21 block scheme. Atop the Masterpiece Gallery, citizens and visitors can get a 360° panoramic view of the city. Some of the rooftops can be accessed via pixelated public staircases that double as informal auditoria for people watching or seating for performances.
The ground level includes a store, three restaurants, conference facilities, and a 2,000 square meter public square.the company’s story will be told in the history collection located in the basement, while the masterpiece gallery — which includes fan creations — will be located at the uppermost level. non-paying guests are able to walk to the top of the building to enjoy views from the outdoor terraces.
In gorund level of the Lego house, it has a huge gap called children square and above he square, it has a cluster of galleries overlapping.
CTIZENSHIP AND COSMOPOLITANISM
Istanbul was a cosmopolitan city with distinct neighborhood reflecting the empire’s cultural diversity and the capital’s role as a political and economic hub within the region. Especially, İstiklal Street, Pera and Galata district offer a rich opportunity for cosmopolitan life. Galata became a significant and popular business district after the second half of the nineteenth century. The urban modernization and the developments in transportation, such as the construction of the Tunel (subway tunnel) and the tramways, helped fast and easy access to surrounding districts and generated a residential outward growth.
When the historic peninsula, the ‘old city’, reflect the historical texture of th city and it is symbolized obsolescence, stagnation, The Galata and Pera district called as ‘modern’ and ‘ westernized’.
Galata and Pera were not the only non-Muslim residential neighborhoods in Istanbul. However, it was only in these districts that the 12 diversity of social differences merged in with the physical landscape and created a significantly different lived experience for those who traveled through the district day and night. Architectural and social spaces in Galata and Pera are linked inextricably in the re/production of everyday lived experiences.
TRADE AND CAPITALISM
By the end of the nineteenth century, the dichotomy between the urban fabric of Galata and the historic peninsula on the other side of the Golden Horn had grown to a striking extent. The modernization and urban developments in Galata was intimately related to the commercial relations and the expansion of nineteenth century international capitalism. The market, banks, insurance companies, stock exchange and innumerable small commercial ventures were all set in Galata and Pera.
When it is thinking about the all themes above mentined, trade and capitalism is unavoidable for 19th century museum. Capitalism is thought as an economic system. The 19th century industrial revolution offered a new production bazaar with new technological machines and the means of trade changed. I made a case study ‘ Museum of Capitalism ‘. The Museum of Capitalism is an institution dedicated to educating this generation and future generations about the history, philosophy, and legacy of capitalism, through exhibitions, research, publication, collecting and preserving material evidence, art, and artifacts of capitalism, and a variety of public programming. The Museum strives to broaden public understanding of capitalism through multifaceted programs.
PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION
The look of IStanbul was changed further during the Ottoman era by construction activities, and the cosmopolitan structure of the city was expanded in time too. However, the look of Istanbul was changed mostly due to big or small fires, and the city was reconstructed many timesin the Ottoman era. However, the greatest change came with the modern industrialization during the 19th century. The industrialization process especially affected mansions, gardens, and old palaces; they were demoslished in favır of military buildings, new factories, nd terminals Barracks and factories became the symbol Ottoman industrialization.
In this week, lecture is given by Asst. Prof. Dr. Bilge İmamoğlu on the history of the profession in Turkey
In the lecture, we started with the definition of profession, professional, and professionalism. We mentioned the issues that is related emerging process of ‘profession’. Profession means ‘meslek’ in Turkish and it is a combination of skills and abilities that one person has in the nature of being able to benefit other people in order to produce a job. However, in society, it is confused that the meanings of profession and occupation. Occupation (iş) is that a person’s principal job in life to earn money.
Later on, it is talked about the process of being professional. The process starts with the production and circulation of the knowledge specific to occupation within centralized educational institutions. He mentioned about the early educational institutions of the Ottoman Empire such as “Mühendishane-i Bahri-i Hümayün”, “Mekteb-i Mülkiye”or “Darül Fünun”. Then, he talked about the institutions coming with the republic such as “Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi”, then “Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi”. Through end of the lecture, it is mentioned the movements to professionalism in the field of architecture such as the “Arkitekt” magazine by Zeki Sayar.
This term project topic is a museum. First of all, I analyze the museum historically. The word of museum origins comes from ancient Greek called ‘mouseion it meant “living space of the Muses”. Muse is accepted as a source of inspiration in Greek mythology. Open and enclosed spaces dedicated to these 9 muses were called museums in Ancient Greece. Mouseion designated a philosophical institution or a place of thinking. Museum is a facility for the preservation and exhibiting of collection that an activity that is a universal phenomenon as old as mankind itself. As a particular kind of collection, the museum is a compilation of natural objects, art science and cultural objects. Actually, the main purpose of museum is that convey information of cultural, scientific and natural values of people to further generation.
The Museum of Alexandria, established in 4th century B.C, is accepted the first museum that presented collection, exhibition, preservation and classification missions for museums in the historical development. The museum contains collection of book, places researching and examining and some rooms for discussion and conservation. With this way, the museum transform to a significant science center.
In today’s context, the museums firstly are established in renaissance term. The importance of museums as centers of knowledge, science and art has increased steadily over the last century; from an elite understanding to a pluralistic understanding, has come to a position appealing to every segment of society. The museum’s socialization process, dating from the 18th century to the present day, has led research, conservation and communication into three key areas of work that support each other. For this reason, it is taken into consideration that the museum design is to protect the objects, to exhibit them and to transfer the information about the objects to the audience in an understandable way. The temples, churches, palaces and villas house to the first museums. From the 1920s, the architectural understanding formed by the Bauhaus School, which consisted of neutral areas, was influenced by the slogan “Form Follows Function” and the space design in which the function was based.
It should not be forgotten that in the simplification, modernization and transparency of the museums, it was the effects of large glass-faced historic structures such as Crystal Palace which Joseph Paxton made for the Industrial Exhibition in London in 1850-1851. In order to catch society attention, the image of the frightening temple is replaced by a transparent, intriguing museum design that integrates the outside and the inside such as Center George Pompidou.
The museums placed in large buildings bring about their faithfulness and authority. Today, this authority has changed its methods and strategies for this purpose by taking this sacredness back into the plan, primarily aiming at the needs of the audience and designing and exhibiting them as an essential thing of their institutions. Freedom of movement in environmental psychology, museum entries and intermediate spaces can be said to be similar to shopping malls where many American museums are transparent and entertaining, relaxing and guiding with plants, and a little more popular among the public. It may be thought that this resemblance was used especially at museum entrances in order to make the vacations of society more attractive in the shopping centers and to make attractive the museums which are seen by many as forbidden zones. The National Gallery (1937) that has a classical style in Washington is an answer to this description.
In the vicinity of the entrance are mostly counseling, toilets, cafes, shops. Like the Louvre in Paris, the world’s most classical enthusiasts take these designs as priorities and replace them with different or the same ideas. In design of the museum, the important things are the design of the building and comfort of the visiter. In the classical museum architecture, the ongoing corridors were divided by panos and later abbreviated or destroyed, making it easier to visit the museum; deaf walls were opened at reasonable intervals to connect the museum to the outside.
When examining the museum in Turkey, the first example of museum is based on the Mecma-I Asar-I Atika (ancient artwork collection), at the same time it brings about the foundation of İstanbul Archeology Museum at the end of the 19th century. Currently, the Museum is undergoing a process of transformation into a new contemporary institution. The first works are historical pieces collected from the Church of St. Irene. The museum includes the re-distributing more than 2000 thousand objects along 36 galleries.
I read an article about relations of experience and spaces in museum building. I want to share some basic information about importance of visitors and contribution to their experience to designing of museum.
Museum Experience and Factors Affecting Experience
In today’s concept of museum is shaped on the experience and in creation of these experience environments, it evaluates visitors and their features. In this direction, the main issue is to attract the greatest number of people. According to time, space and date, the museums express that they exhibit many attitudes towards visiting. According to the examining of Doering, this experience is grouped in three main model. Visitor as a foreign, visitor as a guest and visitor as a customer. These factors affect the degisn of museum spaces in terms of their experience. In the first model, the main focus point is the collection of museum.
In second model, the main point is that museum wants to make ‘good things’ for visiters. In that sense, the good thing describe as offering educational activities and spaces for people. When the visiters is accepted as a customer, the museum has responsibility against to people to satisfy people’s needs and expectations. This perspective shows that the museum acts as a service sector as well.
To experience, individuals come to museum with the experience with different preliminary information, personal stories, different perspectives and anticipations. In addition, the interests of people are diverse, and the museums are looking for different kinds of experiences for different interests. The museums must include distinct types of spaces designed to increase the possibilities for these experiences that including social, cognitive, introspective, and object experience. These places should encourage the experience of the object directly, present learning experience, encouraging imagination, developing interaction between people.
- Kandemir, Ö., Uçar,Ö. Değişen Müze Kavramı Ve Çağdaş Müze Mekanlarının Oluşturulmasına Yönelik Tasarım Girdileri ”
- Naredi-Rainer, Paul von. Museum buildings: a design manual. Birkhäuser – Publ. for architecture, 2004.
- Artun, A. (2006). Müze ve modernlik: tarih sahneleri – sanat müzeleri I. İletişim Yayınları: İletişim Yayınları.
- Öztekin, O. A. (2014). MÜZE KAVRAMI VE MÜZE YAPILARININ iÇ MEKANLARININ iSTANBUL’ DAN ÖRNEKLERLE iNCELENMESi (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Haliç university.
- Çelik, Z. (n.d.). The remarking of istanbul: Portrait of an Ottoman City in the Nineteenth Century. University of California press.
- Günay, B. (2012). Museum Concept from Past to Present and Importance of Museums as Centers of Art Education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Abant izzet baysal university.
- Özkasım, H., & Ögel, S. (2005, December). Türkiye’de müzeciliğin gelişimi . Itü dergisi.
- Akmehmet, K., & Ödekan, A. (December, 2006). Müze eğitiminin tarihsel gelişimi. Itü dergisi.