ARCH 401: CASE STUDY

We studied on two case study related with  this term project Emsalsiz ( highrise building that has mixed-use). These are;

TOBB ETU Technology Center – A Architectural Design

EGE Plaza – Hatırlı Architecture

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ARCH 401: EMSALSIZ II : WITHOUT MEASURE / WITHOUT PRECEDENT

SITE: ÇUKURAMBAR / ANKARA

Again and again new term is came and we started to work on a new project Emsalsiz. In this term, large-scale urban projects are to be assigned to us.  we have chosen to introduce the challenges that the contemporary urban condition imposes on architecture by conceptualizing the word emsalsiz. Turkish word emsalsiz is used in two senses.

First it points to the becoming obsolete of emsal, which is originally an urban measure defined as “the ratio of the building floor area in relation to the land” (TAKS). In the recent urban transformation projects this ratio is so high and exceptional that emsal
ceases to be a measure. This is a condition “without measure” that can be coined as emsalsiz. As the congestion and scale increases the conventional architectural types and urban typologies are almost impracticable. As such it may refers to the second meaning of emsalsiz that is “without precedent”.

In architecture emsalsizlik may both point to a crisis of representation but may also be taken as a possibility for innovation and originality. As part of group work the students are asked to analyze, diagrammatize and document a newly developing urban center as a case. The site where the exercise will be performed is the area between Dumlupınar Boulevard on north, Mevlana Boulevard on east and Muhsin Tazıcıoğlu Avenue on west. The plots facing this larger area are also to be included.

ARCH 322 : Perception of ‘Transparency’

Transparency means a simultaneous perception of different spatial locations. Space not only recedes but fluctuates in a continuous activity.”

Rowe, C. & R. Slutzky

‘Transparency,’ ‘space-time,’ ‘simultaneity,’ ‘interpenetration’: in the literature of contemporary architecture these words are often used as synonyms. However, in architecture, the transparency implies more than an optical characteristics, it implies a broader spatial order[1].

At the beginning of any inquiry into transparency, a basic distinction can be established. First, transparency concept may be an inherent quality of substance or second, it may be an inherent quality of organization. For this reason, it is easier to establish distinction between a real or literal and phenomenal or seeming transparency.[2] Transparency meaning is to percept the different spatial location in which space fluctuates in a continuous activity and pleasure the spatial experience.[3] For example, when two or more figures overlapping each other, each of them claims for itself a common overlapped part and it brings about some kinds of contradiction of spatial dimensions. Figures interpenetrate each other and it does not cause to visual damage. However, the transparency consists of more than a visual feature. It expresses a wider spatial organization. This article explains the transparency in terms of the distinction of the two types of transparency:  The Literal and Phenomenal transparency.

Architectural criticizer and historian Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky identify transparency in architecture as more than a mere visual perception of clarity but as a new psychological perception of time and space.[4] The article on transparency in 1955 and they claim that the transparency has distinction in two main issues in that article. These are literal and phenomenal transparency. A literal transparency is conceivable as perceptual transparency. It is a quality inherent to substance or matter, such as in mesh screens, translucent walls, etc… On the other hand, the phenomenal transparency, that is, a conceptual transparency, a quality inherent in the spatial or volumetric organization.[5] The phenomenal transparency is applied with solid material and create different transparency interpretation to architecture. A spider web can be example to understand better. Spider web is not a transparent material but it shows the things that in the background. Transparency that is composed of transparent materials, and enable to rear objects visible is ordinary and obvious. However, phenomenal transparency is a visual device to percept the different spatial locations in which space fluctuates in a continuous activity and pleasure the spatial experience.

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Broadway Boogie-Woogie- Painting by Piet Mondrian, 1943

Learning and teaching phenomenal transparency hence requires rigorous experimentation of understanding and play of various layers and planes in architectural design and phenomenal transparency is achieved in the interpenetration of these spaces. For example the

Mondrian paintings based on phenomenal transparency. It is in the painting on the left. First row (from left to right) figures shows two separate layers are placed (yellow and red), then red plane to reveal the yellow layer underneath. In second row start with blue layer and blue plane to reveal the other color layers underneath. In the last row, the all layers overlapping each other and create new spatial stratification. [6] Rowe and Slutzky carried to this phenomenal transparency idea to architectural buildings.

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Bauhaus – Walter Gropius, 1926

The Bauhaus building designed by Walter Gropius is the one of the most significant examples for literal transparency undoubtedly. Gropius was interested in diagonal views of the corner which display the transparent properties of glass to their best advantage. In the exterior façade, the curtain of glass that drapes over the workshop’s faces demonstrates material transparency that leaves little to the viewer’s imagination[7]. One can perceive the glass and framing behind it, and the space behind the glass is easily recognized and also the given sense of permeability. The grid system in façade connects building’s faces and informs the viewer of the space defined.

Unlike the Bauhaus, Corbusier’s Villa Stein in Garches appears a great example for phenomenal transparency. Unlike the literal transparency, in this building, the architect provides a suggestion of what the volume of the space might look like behind the opaque walls, and the viewer is allowed to bring to mind the hidden spaces.[8]

Transparency is not only used via windows visually, but also we percept the interpenetration of spaces. In building, several of layers are revealed like Mondrian paintings. In these layers, some of real, some imagined and some of them have feature that is perceivable easily than others.

lecorbusier_villagarches_axonometric01
Le Corbusier- Villa Stein, Garches, 1927

 First layer consists of the plane of the front façade starting at the second floor and cantilevered from the ground floor plane, second, the plane connecting the ground floor wall and redefined on the roof by the two free standing walls of the terrace as well as the termination of second floor windows on the side elevation, third, the plane connecting the parapet of the garden stairs and the terrace and the second floor balcony, fourth, the plane defining the rear wall of the terrace and the front wall of the penthouse, and fifth, the rearmost wall of the terrace as well as the walls below. [9] In there, the real surfaces and imagined create a new logical interpretation between fact and implication. Some surfaces can disclose in the horizontal axis with floors and roof.

Vertical layers that defined the interior space of the building are spaces that overlapping in series. In this building, transparency without causing any visual confusion reveals by overlapping layers and interpenetrated surfaces. Different layers that percept simultaneously bring a new perspective to architecture. With this way, opaque place is cut by shallow spaces and people can percept easily the continuity of simultaneous spaces.[10] At Villa Stein, the ground is conceived of as a vertical surface traversed by a horizontal range of windows at the Bauhaus it is given the appearance of a solid wall extensively punctured by glazing, [11]

When compare the Bauhaus and Villa Stein in terms of similarities, shallowly, garden façade of Villa Stein and elevation of wing of Bauhaus’s workshop (workshop wing is a visible literal transparency example for that building). Both of them have cantilevered slab and do not allow any interruption, also both have built-in ground floor. Both of the buildings are paid attention to continuity of window at the corner[12]. Apart from these features, there are not any similarities between them. Bauhaus workshop wing is a visible literal transparency example for that building.

From here on, Le Corbusier is primarily occupied with the planar qualities of glass and Gropius with its translucent attributes. By the introduction of a wall surface almost equal in height to that of his glazing divisions, Le Corbusier reinforced his glass plane and provides it with an overall surface tension; while Gropius allows his translucent surface the appearance of hanging from a band which sticks out somewhat in a curtain box.[13]

To sum up, the aim of this critique is to understand the distinction of the two types of transparency is a device that forms the experience of space and subjects.   Varying interpretations allow for the experience of space to be unique to each concept. I released that the distinction of both form of transparency belongs to how the viewer interacts with the design. A kinds of transparency of looking. While literal transparency is perceived and visible easily and at the same time it offers a direct and simple communication, the phenomenal transparency is abstract and hard to understand of meaning from the outside.

References

  • Eroğlu, Y. (2003). Mimarlık ve şeffaflık (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). İTÜ Fen Bil. Enst.
  • Rowe, C. & R. Slutzky, Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Perspecta, 1963, vol.8, pp. 45–54.
  • D’souza, N., Balakrishnan, B., & Dicker, J. (2012). Transparency: Literal, phenomenal, digital. Boston, MA, March 1-4, pp. 708-715.
  • Turhan, E. (2007). Mimari tasarımda cam kullanımı ve alışveriş merkezlerinde değerlendirilmesi (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). İTÜ Fen Bil. Enst.
  • Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Feb 12, 2012

https://arch360.wordpress.com/2012/02/02/transparency-literal-and-phenomenal/

  • Reid, Micheal. “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal.” Last accessed Mar 13, 2012

https://issuu.com/mikereid/docs/transparency_literal_and_phenomenal

  • Asımgil, B. (July 2004). An Evaluation of Conceptual Transparency in Architecture of Office Buildings in Turkey After 1980 (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). İzmir Institute of Technology.
  • Ascher-Barnstone, D. (2003). Transparency. Journal of Architectural Education, 56(4), 3-5.

Arch 302 FINAL JURY

My proposal is coming from the analysing the historical Sigorta map in İzmir. I  created main spine with traces that based in the old site. This main spine acts as a thick wall and this wall formd according to the requirements. And other stores fromed around this spine.  My main cocncept is that the void that is locked up in ancient han typologies, to turn from inside to outside  Iranian souk typology is given inspiration to me to develop my proposal for this site. Then, this spine brances according to the program. The wall in the first level mainly consists of storage and servives areas. Also it included space generated as circulation , in somewhere it transfroms to core of the site. Thr bazaar has four main core included toilets, elevators and stair.  The thick wall concept brings about massive sense to the bazaar. In somewhere, this massive sense breaks and occurs as courtyards.  The program generated on; wood bazaar ( handmade wood design and wood engraving ). Workshops, ateliers, production rooms, recreation areas, display areas, and exchange areas. When people visit the bazaar, they take a oppotunity to attend to workshops as well as they buy somehthing. form shops. When doing all of them, smell of wood spreading to whole bazaar comes to your nose.

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2nd Pre-Jury

My design proposal comes from Kemeraltı Hans typologies. In the existing typology, the hans have common points . İnner corridor sytem and also appropriate and enough storage spaces, because n these days, mostly the city  provide for       dry legumes, dry graapes etc. The inner corridor sysyem provides a inner circulation between the commercial areas and has a closed circulation experience for people shopping. Unlike the existing condition, I improved a new interpretation to that location and I turned inside to out and created an open circulation system. The void that be caged became a free in outside and on the contrary, the the stores lined up on a spine.

Other step to develop of my proposal is the analysing the historical Sigorta map in İzmir. I  created main spine with traces that based in the site. This main spine acts as a thick wall and this wall formd according to the requirements. And other stores fromed around this spine like Iranian souk typology  and brances according to the prrogram. The wall in the first level mainly consists of storage and servives areas. In somewhere it generated as exibition center, in somewhere it transfroms to passage way or special room in workshops etc…

My program is the creating a bazaar on wood works. It includes many type of activities, workshops on wood for people, production areas… Wood engraving, wood toys, wood jewellery, special design products and many kinds of production… Also productions ade in ateliers exhibits in exhibition center.

The location that closed to the streets has workshops areas to increase the participation of the turist or people, and also exchange spaces of these products. In interior spaces includes mostly, production areas. When a person passing from that location, he/she takes the smelling of wood and wonder what it makes… Spreading of smelling…